Fruit is regarded as the ripen ovary with seeds covered by pericarp.
On the basis of origin :
1. True fruit
2. False fruit
3. Parthenocarpic fruit
· True fruit : It develops from ovary where ovule forms seeds and wall of ovary matures as pericarp. They are mainly result of superior ovary.
Eg : Mango,Tomato, Pea,Coconut
· False / pseudo fruit : fleshy and edible portion of fruit develops from receptacle or thalamus and not from the wall of ovary. They are result of mostly inferior ovary.
Eg : apple
· Partheno carpic fruit : fruit without seed or non viable seed
Eg : today’s banana, grapes watermelons orange these are artificially induced without fertiilization.
On the basis of structure : as follows ;
1. Simple fruits : they are resulted from syncarpous ovary or monocarpellary ones.
Further sub types :
a. Dry fruits :
Pericarp not differentiated into three regions i.e. epicarp mesocarp and endocarp.
And pericarp is dry.
Three types of dry fruits :
· Dehiscent or capsular fruit.
1. Legume / pod :
Developed from superior monocarpellary gynoecium that dehisces by both the halves via suture . eg: members of fabaceae like pea, gram, bean
2. Follicle : develops from superior bicarpellary gynoecium but unilocular ovary and dehiscence occur by only one half . eg : Calotropis
3. Siliqua : elongated, linear many seeded develops from superior bi carpellary unilocular ovary with parietal placentation . This dehisces by both the halves from base to apex .
Eg : cruciferae family members
( silcula is just flat shortened siliqua eg : Iberis )
4. Capsule : developed from multi carpellary syncarpous ovary
They can dehisce via :
1. Pore eg : Papaver somniferum ,Argenome
2. Locule eg : cotton. Lady finger
3. Septa eg : linum
4. Septa breaks to segments eg : Datura
· In dehiscent or achenal fruit :
Formed from monocarpellary pistil with superior unilocular ovary .
Membranous or ,leathery pericarp
Pericarp is free of seed coat except for one point .
2. Caryopsis :
Developed from monocarpellary pistil with superior ovary
Here pericarp and testa are completely fused .
This type of fruit are iconic feature of members of Gramineae family
Developed from inferior bicarpellary ovary eg : Compositeae family members .
Winged fruit from bi or tri carpellary .
Eg : shorea (sal)
5. Nut :
One seeded from superior syncarpous pistil with pericarp hard woody ir leathery .
Eg : Litchi, oak nut, cashew nut, water chest nut
· Schizocarpic or splitting fruits :
Many seeded dry simple fruit that breaks up to one seeded zone at maturity .
1. Lomentum : a constricted pod.
2. Cremocarp : two seeded fruit at maturity splits into two mericarps . Eg : coriander , carrot
3. Carcerulus : fruit breaks up into indehiscent and single seeded 3 or more mericarps EG: malva
4. Double samara: eg : Acer
5. Regma : dry three to many chambered fruit from syncarpous pistil eg: castor , Euphorbia
b. Fleshy or succulent fruit :
Here, 3 region of pericarp found and these region becomes fleshy as name suggests.
a. Drupe :
here endocarp is hard socalled stone fruit eg: Mango, coconut , plum .Almond
b. Bacca or berry :
fleshy many seeded fruit with axile placentation .
Eg : tomato, guava ,grape, banana
c. Pepo : fleshy mainly seeded developed from inferior syncarpous pistil.
Eg: cucurbits such as cucumber, pumpkin, watermelon.
d. Pome : fleshy syncarpous fruit surrounded by thalamus while actual fruit lies within .eg: apple, pear
e. Hesperdium: superior many celled fleshy fruit with axile placentation . endocarp project inward forming distinct chamber. Epicarp and mesocarp fuse together to for separable skin
Eg : citrus like orange, lemon.
f. Balausta : a false berry where edible portion is juicy testa of seeds eg: pomegranate
2. Aggregrate fruits :
They develop from apocarpous pistil.
Aggregrate of simple fruits borne by single flower is termed as etaerio.
a. Etaerio of follicles : Michelle, Vicna
b. Etaerio of achenes : rose , lotus strawberry
c. Etaerio of drupes : raspberry
d. Etaerio of berries : custard apple
3. Multiple or composite fruits :
a. Sorosis : develops from spadix, catkin or spadix inflorescence . Eg : pineapple , mulberry , jackfruit.
b. Syconus : developd from hypanthodium eg : ficus ( banyan, fig, peepal )
Functions of fruit :
1. It helps in seed dispersal for continuity of life cycle.
2. They provide food and energy .
3. In some, they even nourish seedlings.
4. They are rich source of sugar, pectin, vitamins and organic acid .