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Oxidation & Reduction in terms of O.N.

↪ In terms of O.N., oxidation is a chemical process which involve increase in O.N. .
Reduction is a  chemical process which involves decrease in O.N. .

 Oxidizing and Reducing Agent in terms O.N.

↪ An oxidizing agent or oxidant is a substance which oxidizes the other substances and itself get reduced.

↪ In other word, it is a substance whose O.N. decreases.
↪ An oxidizing agent is a species which gains electron.

↪ A reducing agent or reductant is a substance which reduces other substance and itself gets oxidized.

↪ In other words, reducing agent may be defined as the substance whose O.N. increases.
A reducing agent is a species which loses electrons.

⁕ Differences between O.N. and Valency

1. It is the charge appeared on the atom.
eg: O.N. of C in HCHO is 0.
1. It is the no. of electrons lost, gained or shared by an atom of an element.
eg: Valency of C in HCHO is 4.
2. It may be zero, positive, negative or even in fraction.
eg: O.N. of N in (hydrozoic acid) N3H is -1/3 and in NH3 is -3.
2. It is a whole number with positive or negative sign.
eg: Valency of N in N3H and NH3 is 3.
3. It may be different for the same element in the different compounds.
eg: O.N. of C in CH4, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4 are -4, -2, 0, +2 and +4 resp.

3. Except variable valency, elements have constant valency.
eg: Valency of C in CH4, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4 is 4.