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Family Solanaceae

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Solanaceae (Potato Family)

Distribution: mostly found in tropical America, south America and temperate region of northern region, this family includes 94 genera and 1700 species.

Habitat : Terrestial,Mesophyte ,wild or cultivate for medicinal purpose ,ornamental ,spices and vegetable values.

Habit: mostly annual or perennial herb (Solanum nigrum, Datura, Nicotiana), shrubs (Cestrum) or perennial trees (Solanum grandiflorum), Solanum nigrum is a smallest perennial herb, Datura is largest annual herb.

Root: tap root system

Stem: aerial or underground (Solanum tuberosum) erect, climber branched, cylindrical, solid, pubescent or glabrous.

Leaf: cauline and ramal, alternate, opposite at or near to inflorescence, exstipulate, petiolate, simple or pinnately compound (Solanum tuberosum), entire or dentate, 
pubescent, acute or obutse apex, unicoasted reticulate venation.

Inflorescence: cymose (axillary or extra-axillary cyme) or terminal solitary

Flower: braceate (Petunia hybrida) or ebraceate (Withania), pediceellate, actinomorphic or zygomorphic (Salpiglosis), complete, bisexual, pemtamerous, 
hypogynous, tetracyclic, tubular or infundibuliform, various colour.

Calyx: sepals five, gamosepalous, sepaloid, valvate or imbricate aestivation, campanulate or tubular, persistent, inferior.

Corolla: petals five, gamopetalous, alternate with sepals, valvate or twisted aestivation, tubular or infundibuliform, inferior.

Androecium: stamens five, rarely four (Salpiglosis) or two (Schizanthus), polyandrous, epipetalous, alternate with petals, anther dithecous, connet or connivent anther, basifixed or dorsifixed, introrse, inferior.

Gynoecium: carpel two, bicarpillary, syncarpous, ovary superior, obliquely placed, unilocular (Capsicum), bilocular (Solanum), bilocular becomes tetralocular due to developmet of false septum called replum (Datura), axial placentation, swollent placenta, style long, stigma capitate or bilobed.

Fruit: simple, dry, indehiscent, berry or capsule.

Seed: two cotyledons, albuminous.

Floral formula and Floral Diagram :



Identifiying characters
Lower leaves alternate,
opposite towards inflorescence
Persistent calyx
Epipetalous,
alternate with petal stamens
Obliquely placed ovary,
swollen placenta,
axile placentation
Fruit is berry or capsule


Classification:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Phanerogams
Sub-divison: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Sub-class: Gamopetalae
Series: Bicarpillate
Order: Polemoniales
Family: Solacaceae



Economically important plants:
Solanum tuberosum
Solanum melongena
Capsicum annum
Capsicum fructescens
Datura stramonium
Lycopersicum esculentum
Nicotiana tabacum
Withania somnifera
Cestrum noctrum
Cestrum diurnum
Atropa belladona