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The Pancreas


They develop from the endoderm of the embryo.


It is located in the curvature of the duodenum.


It is an elongated, yellowish gland. It is about 15cm long and weighs about 85gm. It is a heterocrine gland with endocrine as well as exocrine functions.

a)Exocrine part: It consists of lobules or acinii that secrete pancreatic juice.

b)Endocrine part: It contains specialized glandular cells that are endocrine in function. They are called Islets of Langerhans. It contains four types of cells.

  • Alpha cell(α-cell): They secrete glucagon.
  • Beta cell(β-cell): They secrete insulin.
  • Delta cell(δ-cell):They secrete somatostatin.
  • PP cell(pancreatic polypeptide cell): They secrete pancreatic polypeptide.


  1. Insulin

a)It increases blood glucose level.

b)It stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose.

c)It causes hypoglycemia(deficiency of glucose).

2. Insulin

a)It increases the rate of carbohydrate metabolism.

b)It makes the level of blood glucose constant.

c)It promotes protein metabolism.

d)It is essential for growth.


a)It inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon.

b)It decreases secretion, mobility and absorption of digestive tract.

4.Pancreatic polypeptide

a)It inhibits the release of digestive secretion of pancreas.