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Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell


Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

a. Prokaryotic cells (Pro: primitive; karyon: nucleus)
b. Eukaryotic cells (Eu: well; karyon: nucleus)

Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cellsEukaryotic cells
Primitive cells found in bacteria and cyanobacteria.Advanced cells found in Protista, Mycota, Plantae and Animalia.
Comparatively small with average diameter 0.5-10 πmComparatively large with average diameter 10-100 πm
True nucleus absent.
(Absence of nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, chromatic fibers)
True nucleus present.
(Presence of nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, chromatic fibers)
DNA lies freely in cytoplasm known as incipient nucleus.DNA lies inside the nucleus.
DNA is not associated with histone proteins.
DNA is circular and naked.
DNA is linear and is associated to form histone proteins— chromatids.
Amount of DNA is low.Amount of DNA is high.
They have single envelope system of organization.They have double envelope system of organization.
Absence of membrane bound organelles like mitochondria, plastids, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes.Presence of membrane bound organelles like mitochondria, plastids, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes.
Ribosome are of 70s type.Cytoplasmic ribosome -- 80s
Organelle ribosome -- 70s
Photosynthetic thylakoids lies freely in the cytoplasm.Photosynthetic thylakoids are present inside the chloroplasts.
Mesosomes are the site of respiration and cytoplasmic membranes are in cyanobacteria.Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration.
Cell wall is made up of murein/peptidoglycan.Cell wall is made up of cellulose (plant cell).
Flagella is present.
simple lacking microtubules.
Flagella is present complex having 9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
Some have ability of nitrogen fixations.None have ability of nitrogen fixation.
Cytoplasm doesn't show cyclosis.Cytoplasm shows cyclosis.
Cell division occurs amitosis.Cell division occurs by mitosis, meiosis, amitosis.
Endocytosis and exocytosis absent due to the presence of cell wall.Endocytosis and exocytosis takes place in Protista and Animalia.
Sap vacuoles absent, gas vacuoles may occur.Sap vacuoles occur in plant cells.