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Giving, Withholding and Reporting Permissions


---- What are Permissions ? ----

Permissions are actions that allow someone to do a particular thing.
some words associated with permissions are : Can, Could, May, Would etc.
Asking Permissions :
Asking Permissions usually involve combining the words above with a verb :
i.e. Can I + verb or Could I + verb
for eg. 
* " Can I use your Pencil ? "
* " May I use the Restroom Ma'am? "

----- Giving Permissions ----

I'm going to explain this sub-topic with a scenario :

This scenario involves two people, the yellow guy asks for permission to use the red guy's phone by saying "Can I use your phone ? "
While the red guy accepts and gives the yellow guy permission to use his phone by replying with "Yes you can. "
Thus, Red guy is performing the act of "Giving Permission" and we can conclude that "Giving Permission" is the act of allowing someone to do something.

---- Withholding Permission ----

Withholding usually means refusing to do or give something.

Scenario 2 :

Here, the yellow guy asks for permission first by saying " Fair lady, May I give you a kiss? "
but the red guy ( or girl ) denies permission by replying with " No, I'm afraid not "
Thus, Red guy is performing the act of "Withholding permission" by refusing to give the yellow guy permission to kiss.

     Reporting Permissions     

The act of Reporting Permissions is to validate the permission through words after it has been given or withheld by someone. This can be better understood through examples :
 "You can use my phone" is a given permission. 
This permission is reported by saying " I'm allowed to use his phone. "
Similarly, "I'm afraid you cannot use my phone " is a withheld permission.
and this permission is reported by saying " I am not allowed to use his phone. "

Here are a few more examples of reporting permissions : 
a. "You can use my pencil. "
- I'm allowed to use her pencil
b. "Don't let them enter through this gate. "
- They are not permitted to enter through this gate
c. "You can take photographs here. "
- We are allowed to take photographs here
d. " Don't let them leave the school. "
- They are restricted to leave the school
e. " Let her sit here. " 
- She is allowed to sit here
f. " You can play here. " 
- You are permitted to play here
g. "Don't let them speak English in Nepali class. "
They are banned from speaking English in Nepali class.

---- Extras : 

below are a few more expressions you can use to give/withhold permissions :

            Giving Permissions                           Withholding permissions             

Of course.
Yes, certainly you can.
By all means.
Yes, that's fine
Please, don't hesitate to...
OK/Fine/All right if.....
That's OK/ That's fine.
That's all right.
Let her sit here.

You can.... but you musn't
Don't let them....
Sorry, I'm afraid
I'm afraid you can't
I'm afraid not.
I'm afraid I can't let you.....
I can't possibly....