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Introduction

Introduction

⁕ Introduction to Oxygen

↪ Greek, Oxys - Sour, genas - produce: Acid Producer

SymbolO
Atomic number8
Atomic mass16 amu
Valency2
Electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p4

⁕ Occurrence

↪ English chemist Joseph Priestly detected oxygen in 1774 as a nonmetallic element.
↪ Oxygen is the most abundant element and it is about 47% by mass on the earth crust in the form of oxides and oxysalts.
↪ It occurs 23% by weight in free molecular form in air and about 86% by weight in combined form on oceans.
↪ Natural oxygen is a mixture of three isotopes:
16O(99.76%), 17O(0.04%) and 18O(0.2%).
↪ Oxygen is the most essential for life and it supports respiration.

⁕ Position of Oxygen in Periodic table

↪ Oxygen is a nonmetallic element having atomic number 8 and mass number 16.
↪ Its electronic configuration is: 1s2 2s2 2p4.
↪ The elements sulphur, selenium, tellurium and polonium also have general valence shell electronic configuration ns2 np4 and all of them belongs to group VIA.
↪ All these elements are collectively called chalcogens (ore forming) because metal occur in nature as the ores of oxides, sulphides, selenides and tellurides.
↪ Oxygen is the representative element of this family.

⁕ Electronic configuration and some properties of group VIA elements are given below:

ElementAtomic NumberElectronic ConfigurationI.P. (ev)E.N.
O8[He] 2s2 2p413.63.5
S16[Ne] 3s2 3p410.352.5
Se34[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p49.752.4
Te52[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p49.012.1