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Manufacture of Urea from Ammonium Carbamate

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↪ The most popular method of Urea formation is from decomposition of ammonium carbamate.

Principle

↪ In this method, NH3 and CO2 are compressed and reacted at 100-200 atms and 170C in an autoclave to form ammonium carbamate (NH4COONH2).
↪ Urea is formed by dehydration in a low pressure stripping operation.
↪ Process can be modified during recycling of un-reacted NH3-CO2 and % excess NH3 in reactants.

Chemical Reactions involved

↪ (Bazarov reaction given by Bazarov Alexander (1845-1907) Chemist and Botanist)

↪ One of the impurities that affect the performance of urea as a fertilizer is biuret
↪ To avoid loss of yield contamination of product, it is very important to minimize biuret formation.


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Flowsheet diagram of Manufacture of Urea from Ammonium Carbamate