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Introduction

↪ Bioinorganic chemistry is an branch of chemistry that deals with the role of metal or compounds within biological and biochemical systems.
↪ Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the roles of metals in biology.
↪ The scope of this branch, is amazingly a wide field as it explains the roles of different inorganic elements which are essential for life.
↪ It is important not only for chemists but also even for the biologists to understand the mechanisms of how biological system work.

⁕ It includes:

↪ The study of both natural phenomena such as the behavior of metalloproteins as well as artificially introduced metals (mix of biochemistry and inorganic chemistry).
↪ The study of naturally occurring inorganic elements in biochemical systems.
↪ The artificial introduction of metals into biological systems as probes to determine the function of biomolecules and as drugs to treat diseases.
↪ The investigation of inorganic elements in nutrition.
↪ The research on the toxicity of inorganic species ,etc. 

Elements in Body

↪ It is interesting to know the content of the elements in a human body and the biological processes that the elements are performing in a healthy human body.
↪ If an average person weighing 70kg is considered, the elements that are present in the body are as follows:

S.N.Elementsweight (gm)
1.Calcium 1050
2.Potassium and Sodium105 + 13.5
3.Magnesium35
4.Iron + Zinc4.5 + 3.0
5. Copper 0.11
6.Manganese0.02
7.Cobalt1mg

Total weight                                                                                      11                             

 

S.N.Electrons                                                                                      Weight (gm)  
1.Oxygen45500
2.Carbon12600
3.Hydrogen7000
4.Nitrogen                      2100
5.Phosphorous700

Total weight

67900


↪ The rest of other metals that are essential for the biological processes does not exceed one gram.

↪ From above data, we can see that the human body possesses the metal content that is essential for the biological processes are just only near 2%.
↪ But the dependencies of human life on these essential elements are far more than this figure in our hand.

↪ The following table illustrates the elements according to their action in the biological processes.

Essential TracesNon EssentialToxic
Essential elements are absolutely for the continuation of life processes.Traces elements are also important for the life process. Only their abundances are low.Non essential elements are not essential for the life processes. If their abundance is zero, other elements serve similar function.These elements are toxic in nature and give alteration on the natural functions of biological processes.
O, C, H, N, P, Na, K, Mg, Cl, Ca, S, etc.I, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Mo, etc.Al, Sr, Ba, Sn, etc.As, Cd, Pb, Hg, etc.