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Specific heat capacity

video for types of thermometer

Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat required to change the heat content of exactly 1 gram of a material by exactly 1°C.

Here is a table for SHC of some materials:

S.No.Materials'S' in Jkg-1°C-1
1.Lead126
2.Gold130
3.Mercury140
4.Silver234
5.Brass380
6.Copper380
7.Steel447
8.Alcohol2590
9.Water4200
10. Petrol1670

Some effects of Specific Heat Capacity are:

  • Water is used to cool the engines of vehicles.
  • Water is suitable for heating systems.
  • The night in the desert is very cold while the day is very hot.
  • Sea breeze occurs in the day and land breeze occurs at night.

Heat Equation

Let the temperature of a body of mass 'm' raises from t to t, when it is heated by supplying the amount of heat Q.

Here, the mass of the body= m 

Initial temperature=t1
Final temperature=t2
Amount of heat supplied= Q

∴ Change in temperature(dt)= t2-t1

It has been found that heat gained or lost by a body is directly proportional to (I) the mass of the body and (II) the change in temperature.

∴ Q m....... (I)

   Q dt....... (II)

Combining equations (I) (II), we have
 
Q mdt

∴ Q= Smdt

or, Q= mSdt..........(III)

Principle of Calorimeter

The principle of calorimeter states that for an insulated system, heat energy lost by a hot body is equal to the heat gained by the cold body.

∴Heat lost                                                  = Heat gained...........(I)
(by a body at a higher temperature)          (by a body at a lower temperature)
or, m1 * S1 * dt1                                               = m2 * S2 * dt2