This refers to consumption of alcoholic beverages like whisky, rum , brandy at such an extent that it causes disease i.e. interferes with physical , mental , social and spiritual health.
Reasons for alcoholism
Concept of alcohol as a means of pleasure and excitement.
Family and peer influence.
Emotional turmoil and a way to depress those.
Social or ritual influence .
Genetics also may play a role. Children of drunkards have chances of being alcoholics too. But not compulsion, lot of other factors are there, just a probability.
1 . On individual
Dementia, insomnia, neuritis caused.
Digestion impaired and increased risk of pancreatitis and gastritis.
Fatty liver syndrome which is liver cirrhosis.
Absorption of thiamine and folic acid inhibited.
Damage heart muscle and hypothermia . Alcohol heats your body for just a short time only then causes hypothermia.
Fetal alcohol syndrome; retardation of baby due to mother being alcoholic.
Impairs renal function.
Causes hypoglycemia and bone loss.
Judgement and vision impaired ; alertness and reaction time reduced.
This is why drinking and driving is lethal.
2. On family
High chance of domestic violence i.e. child and spouse abuse.
Economical loss and further leading loss of peace and tranquility.
Great effect on mental stability of family members.
3. On society
Loss of peace due to drunkards' nuisance.
Loss of life due to accident by just the carelessness of a drunkard.
Higher incidence of murder suicide and rape.
Poor performances and anti-social behaviours.
Symptoms of alcoholism
Alcoholics, being addicted and destroying owns and others life is clearly evident from outside.
Alcohol being an eye opener i.e. need of it as soon as they woke up.
Hostility when confronted about drinking .
Shaking in the morning, dementia and insomnia.
Black outs certain times.
When tolerance is tried to make withdrawal symptoms like shaky hands, indifferent to work is seen.
Or we can find out via CAGE questionnaire that means :
Have you ever felt you need to Cut down on your drinking?
Have people Annoyed you by criticizing your drinking?
Have you ever felt Guilty about your drinking?
Have you ever felt you need a drink as soon as you get up in the morning as an Eye opener ?
Control of alcoholism 1.Rehabilitation of alcoholics as soon as possible family intervention and counselling 2.Turkey method which refers to complete isolation of alcoholic from alcohols enforcement of 3.Strict laws and their implementation imposing high taxes in alcoholic beverage so that their consumption would be cut off to certain level.
4. safe limit of alcohol which is no more than one drink per day for women and no more than two drinks per day for men.
5. Ban on any short advertisement regarding alcohols.
This is an act of inhaling the smoke obtained from Burning the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobaccum or N. rostrum .
Nicotine present in the cigarettes are addictive and causes serious problems like cardiac arrest and brain damage while the task from it is carcinogenic causing lung cancer whereas the polycyclic compounds present there are responsible for causing oral cancer .
Types of smoking
Active smoking: this is direct using cigarettes to inhale smoke.
Passive smoking : this type of smoking includes inhaling the smoke released from the cigarette of smokers are as lethal as the smoke in active smoking in fact even more so because the smoke they are releasing are not filtered while the smoke smokers are inhaling are with filters.
Reasons to smoke
The reasons for any kind of addictions are more or less similar .
Miss belief that smoking causes pleasure and improves performance without any side effects
Much curiosity to experience new thing and get first hand experience .
Psychological factors may play a vital role like depression or any kind of heart break ups ,family problems .
Advertisements by companies to allure in smoking.
Social factors like availability of social and social acceptance of smoking and peer pressure.
Tobacco produces a lot of carbon monoxide that produces affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen causing a spicier tobacco be also cause spasm in coronary arteries increasing risk of cardiac arrest
lung cancer symptoms is to be the popular effect of smoking
This also causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
This also accelerate asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis
In pregnant ladies sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS) is seen and intrauterine growth retardation
It also does somatic and psychological effects like Insomnia irritability and it decreases heart rate with gain and nicotine cravings.
For passive or second hand smoking the effects are as harmful as it is for first hand smoking so there is always a sign to not to smoke in public places for the same reason.
The effects on family are more or less the same as alcoholism as they both are addiction and addiction leads to the similar effects on family like economical problems, domestic violence and many more .
Society also suffers as the same way as from the alcoholism
Symptoms of smoking :
We can call a person addicted to smoking if it develops the following symptoms .
1.production due to irritation of respiratory tract which is also called smokers cough.
2. the lips and the fingers baby become darker and the person may have a typical smell of the tobacco
3. alertness ,memory and heart rate increases
4.upon resistance to cigarette withdrawal symptoms may be seen such as confusion,Insomnia ,dysphoria and depression.
The Turkey method can be also applied which means total isolation from the addictive substance for the addicted ones .
Family peer support and counselling to get rid of addiction.
Ban on selling cigarettes to minors this message has been proven very much effective in many countries of America and Europe.
Impose high taxes on smoking products such as Vape, cigarettes hookah .
strict implementation of laws and Ban On smoking in public places.
Prevention of any sort of advertisement that appeals and promotes smoking in the society.