Socially significant disease
Firstly, what is disease ?
This is in simple language and lacks ease.If we go to the definition of health by WHO,it says,” Health is a complete state of complete physical, mental, social, spiritual well-being and merely absence of infirmity .” .
Knowing this , we can easily define disease as lack of ease in physical, mental , social or spiritual health .
Broadly , disease can be classified under two groups :
Congenital ( by birth)
Acquired ( got after birth )
Under this type we have subtype like communicable , non-communicable , socially significant
Of which ; a socially significant one is that , which will be discussed here in depth :
Socially significant disease
The disease which belong to certain society, for which society and their members physical, mental, social and spiritual health is altered in a bad way.
Out of many , Drug abuse is one of the diseases.
Drug abuse :
Misuse or non prescribed use of drugs ;a substance to treat or prevent disease, is called drug abuse.
We abuse drugs just because they are addictive and make us habituated to them .
So drugs which are abused are also habituating drugs.
Types of drug and their effects
There are 2 types of such drug differentiated as follows:
|1. Psychotropic drugs ||2.Psychedelic drugs|
|A. These alter brain activities.||A. These alter thoughts and perceptions by brain. |
|B. They are mood altering drugs.||B.They are vision affecting drugs.|
|C. For instance: opiates, narcotics,etc||C. For instance : LSD, hemps,etc.|
These two are discussed further below:
In General, the effect of this type is to increase brain activity .
For instance :
Source : coffee or coca plant
Effects: elevates mood and reduces appetite .
This drug isn't that addictive and is used in daily beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate shakes. And is lethal only in extremely high use.
Source : tobacco
Effects: increase blood pressure upon excess intake may cause spasm in coronary artery and then cardiac arrest , relaxes skeletal muscle .
Source : coca plants
Effects : reduce sleep and appetite, extreme happiness or euphoria caused, may cause hallucinations .
Source : synthesized
Effects : like of cocaine but effects are long lasting .nowadays it is used to reduce obesity and fatigue and make anti-sleeping pills
These cause narcosis i.e. diminished consciousness. So, the general effect of this type is analgesic or pain killing.
For instance :
Source : unripenedd seed of Opium poppy plant ;Papaver somniferum
Slow down respiratory activities, digestion impairment, nausea, sterility, indifferent towards work.
Actually remaining below are derivatives of opium and classified as opiates.
sources: opium plant in fact it is alkaloid of it.
Effects: reduce heartrate, constipation, increase sugar level in blood.
This drug , in minute amounts, is used during surgery to reduce pain and induce sleep.
Methadone is used to stop the habit of morphine as this being more addictive than morphine , depresses cravings of morphine. While withdrawal symptoms of Methadone are none.
So, this type of cure is called withdrawal treatment.
0.5 to 2.5% composed of opium as an alkaloid.
Effects: very mild sedation.
So used in cough syrup too.
Heroin /smack /Brown sugar
Source: synthesized by acetylation of morphine.
Thrice more potent than morphine.
Effects : indigestion , reduced vision, loss in weight, sterility, indifferent towards work.
Withdrawal symptoms :
Shivering, runny nose
Effect: analgesic, sedative
Used as local anaesthetic .
3. Tranquilizers and sedatives
Drug that causes sleep and makes us totally unaware is sedative. Eg: Barbiturates
While, one that doesn't cause sleep rather diminishes awareness is Tranquilizer. Eg: Benzodiazepines
Psychedelic drugs :
1.LSD (LySergic acid Diethyl amide)
Source : ergot fungus called Claviceps.
Effects: sensation of flotation, hallucination, psychosis, horrible dreams, infertility.
2. Hemp/Cannabis sativus products
Hashish , charas, marijuana/pot/ ganja , bhang are some of the products.
Marijuana is leaf derived, charas and hashish are live and dead plant's resin derived respectively .
Bhang is from bud or flower of female hemp. This is even enjoyed in cultural festivals like shivaratri.
Alter all sensation, make us feel relaxed and pleasant.
Possible Reasons to abuse drug
Out of curiosity
Look as a source of excitement and adventure.
Family or peer influence.
Religious importance of hemp in Hinduism.
Frustration and depression
Anti- social behaviour and enjoying a lonely life.
Desire to make a good physique with less effort from drugs. like amphetamines.
Family and societal problems and finding ways to depress their mental effects.
1.Turkey method: this is complete isolation of addicts from their drugs.
2. Rehabilitation and counselling of addicts.
3. Strict legislation against drug trade and their implementation.
4. Strict supervision on drug abuse hotspots like pubs, rave parties.
5. Awareness about the repercussions of abusing drugs .
6. Addition of this topic in the curriculum .