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Asking for Reasons, Purposes and Responses

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===Conjunction or Connectives===

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) require students to use language cohesively and to be able to develop different methods of linking paragraphs in oral and written language. To do so, students must learn the appropriate use of conjunctions and connectives since both have similar grammar functions. Conjunction normally connects two sentences, while connectives are used as connecting words within a sentence. They are generally used to indicate different purposes, such as addition, sequence, consequence, and /or contrast. They are also used to indicate reason and time.

 ===Use of Connectives===

 Connectives can be one word or a phrase. The purpose of the words or ideas to be connected will determine the type of connective used. Connectives can be also used as starters of a paragraph or clause, whereas conjunctions generally cannot.

 ===Basic Rules for Using Connectives===

The different types of connectives are not interchangeable. The sentences/ideas being connected must be related. Connectives are usually used only once in a sentence.

===Connectives Used for Different Purposes===


Cause & Effect



and, also, as well as, moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition, etc.

because, so, therefore, thus, consequently, as a result of, etc.

next, then, first, second, …. finally, meanwhile, after, etc.

whereas, instead of, alternatively, otherwise, unlike, on the other hand, in contrast, etc.






however, although, unless, except, if, as long as, apart from, yet, despite, etc.

above all, in particular, especially, significantly, indeed, notably, most of all

for example, such as, for instance, as revealed by, in the case of, as shown by, etc.

equally, in the same way, like, similarly, likewise, as with, as compared with, etc.


===Suggested Teaching Strategies===

  • Provide grids as scaffolds to sort and identify connectives.
  • Play cooperative games to practice skills and metalanguage.
  •  Model how to connect different sentences into a cohesive text using the appropriate connective, then ask students to connect sentences on their own or in small groups when working with English language learners (ELLs).
  • Before the lesson, expose students to the connectives found in the text you will be using.

===Examples of Using Connectives===

  • The teacher liked my grades, in particular, my 100% grade for writing. (emphasizing).
  •  I can go out with friends, as long as I am home by 9:00 p.m. (qualifying).
  •  The film is long and boring, whereas the book is thrilling and well written. (contrasting).
  •  Class debates are interesting, for example, the one about the Civil War. (illustrating).
  •  Today, we completed the chapter on cells; therefore, we will have a quiz on this topic tomorrow.

===Using Connectives with ELLs===

  •  Teachers can simplify a text by taking away some clauses and/or words to provide ELLs with materials at their English language proficiency level.
  • All students: The library on the second floor is one of the best places to read. Moreover, it has hundreds of the most interesting books and magazines.
  •  ELL Beginners: The library is on the second floor. It has many books. The library is on the second floor. Moreover, it has many books.