21 Chemistry -- Alkali Metals

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Sodium Hydroxide

Some important compounds of sodium  
↪ Sodium chloride (NaCl)
↪ Chile saltpetre (NaNO3)
↪ Baking soda (NaHCO3)
↪ Caustic soda (NaOH)
↪ Washing soda (Na2CO3.10H2O)

Caustic Soda

↪ Molecular formula: NaOH
↪ Common names: Caustic soda or soda lye
↪ Chemical name: Sodium Hydroxide


⁕ Physical properties

↪ It is white deliquescent crystalline solid.
↪ It is soluble in water and alcohol.
↪ It is corrosive and its solution is soapy to touch.
↪ Its melting point is 318OC.

 Chemical properties

1.Basic nature
↪ It is strong base and reacts with all acids and acidic oxide to form salt.

2.Action with air
↪ NaOH absorbs moisture to form aqueous NaOH which combines with CO2 of air to form Na2CO3.

3.Action with ammonium salt
↪ It reacts with ammonium salt to liberate ammonia gas.

4.Precipitation reaction
↪ Sodium hydroxide reacts with solution of some metallic salts like FeCl3, FeSO4, CuSO4, ZnSO4, AlCl3 etc. to give different colored precipitate of their hydroxide.

↪ In some cases the hydroxides metals dissolve in excess of sodium hydroxide.

5.Action with CO
↪ Sodium hydroxide reacts with CO at about 200OC under 10 atm pressure to give sodium formate.

↪ Sodium formate Acidification of sodium formate gives formic acid

⁕ Uses of NaOH
1.It is used in the manufacture of paper, soap and artificial silk.
2.It is used in petroleum refining.
3.t is widely used as laboratory reagent.
4.It is used for purification of bauxite.  


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