↪ Sodium is silvery white and soft metal.
↪ It is lighter than water
↪ It is good conductor of heat and electricity.
↪ Its M.P. is 97.5oC and B.P. is 883°C.
1. Action with air
↪ Sodium forms its oxide in air and absorbs moisture to give sodium hydroxide which further combines with CO2 of air to form sodium carbonate and sodium gets tarnished.
↪ This is the reason that sodium metal is stored in kerosene
↪ When sodium is heated in air, it burns with golden yellow flame forming peroxide and some oxide.
2. Action with water
↪ Sodium reacts with water vigorously to give hydrogen and alkali.
3. Reducing property
Sodium acts as good reducing agent as it has lower I.E.
4. Action with non metals
- Action with halogens
↪ Sodium reacts with halogen to give sodium halides.
- Action with H2
↪ Sodium reacts with water to form white salt of sodium hydride.
- Action with phosphorous
- Action with Sulphur
5. Action of ammonia
- Action with liquid ammonia
↪ Sodium dissolves in ammonia to produce deep blue solution of ammoniate sodium ion and ammoniated electrons.
- Action with ammonia gas
↪ When sodium is heated with ammonia gas, sodium amide (sodamide) is formed with evolution of hydrogen gas.
6. Action with Acids
↪ Sodium reacts violently with acids to liberate hydrogen gas.
Uses of Sodium
↪ It is used to produce important compounds like NaCl, Na2O, NaCN etc.
↪ It is used in sodium vapor lamp.
↪ It is used as reducing agent.
↪ It is used to detect foreign elements.
↪ It is used as heat exchanger in nuclear reactor.