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Properties of Sodium

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Physical properties 

Sodium is silvery white and soft metal.
↪ It is lighter than water 
↪ It is good conductor of heat and electricity.
↪ Its M.P. is 97.5oC and B.P. is 883°C.

Chemical properties

Action with air
↪ Sodium forms its oxide in air and absorbs moisture to give sodium hydroxide which further combines with CO2 of air to form sodium carbonate and sodium gets tarnished. 

↪ This is the reason that sodium metal is stored in kerosene
↪ When sodium is heated in air, it burns with golden yellow flame forming peroxide and some oxide.

2. Action with water
↪ Sodium reacts with water vigorously to give hydrogen and alkali. 

3. Reducing property
↪ Sodium acts as good reducing agent as it has lower I.E. 

4. Action with non metals
  • Action with halogens
    ↪ Sodium reacts with halogen to give sodium halides.
  • Action with H2
    ↪ Sodium reacts with water to form white salt of sodium hydride. 
  • Action with phosphorous
  • Action with Sulphur

5. Action of ammonia

  • Action with liquid ammonia
    ↪ Sodium dissolves in ammonia to produce deep blue solution of ammoniate sodium ion and ammoniated electrons.        
  • Action with ammonia gas
    ↪ When sodium is heated with ammonia gas, sodium amide (sodamide) is formed with evolution of hydrogen gas. 

6. Action with Acids
↪ Sodium reacts violently with acids to liberate hydrogen gas.

Uses of Sodium

↪ It is used to produce important compounds like NaCl, Na2O, NaCN etc.
↪ It is used in sodium vapor lamp.
↪ It is used as reducing agent.
↪ It is used to detect foreign elements.
↪ It is used as heat exchanger in nuclear reactor.