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Overview:5 kingdoms of classification

R.H. Whittaker came with the concept of five kingdoms of classification that takes into account of cell structure, the presence of cell wall, mode of nutrition, mode of reproduction and many others.

Note: Shift sideways to see the other kingdoms

Cell typeProkaryoticEukaryoticEukaryotic
Cell wallNon cellulosic (polysaccharides+Amino acids)Present in somePresent (fungal cellulose or chitin)Present (cellulose)Absent
Nuclear membraneAbsentPresentPresent
Cell organisationUnicellularUnicellular or multicellularUnicellular or multicellular
Body organisationCellular grade
Cellular grade
Tissue gradeTissue or organ gradeTissue/ organ/ system grade
Mode of nutritionHeterotrophic (saprophytic/parasitic) and  Autotrophic (chemosynthetic and photosynthetic)Autotrophic (Photosynthetic) and HeterotrophicHeterotrophic
(Saprophytic/ parasitic)
Autotrophic (Photosynthetic)Heterotrophic (holozoic/saprophytic)
RespirationAerobic and Anaerobic  (methanogens)AerobicAerobic and AnaerobicAerobic and rarely AnaerobicAerobic
ReproductionOnly asexualSexual and AsexualSexual and Asexual
Sexual and Asexual
Sexual ( most common)/Asexual
MovementBoth motile or non motileBoth motile or non motile
Non motileNon motile
Reserve foodOil and fat dropletsOil and fat droplets
Glycogen and fatStarch/ProtienGlycogen/fat
Known asDecomposers/ saprophytesPlanktons(autotrophs and heterotrophs)Saprophytes/ParasitesAutotrophsHeterotrophs
Role in ecosystemDecomposersProducer ,consumer and decomposerConsumer and decomposerProducerConsumer
ExampleE.coli, Anthrax bacteriumGiant klep, Paramecium, EuglenaAgaricus, Sac fungiSnake plant, trees, shrubsHumans, insects, birds, animals