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  1. The biological process in which living organisms produce their own kind by asexual or sexual method is called reproduction.
    Living beings reproduce for the existence of their kind or species on the earth from generation to
    generation.

  2. The method of reproduction which takes place from a single parent without the fusion of male and female gamete is called reproduction.
    The basic features of asexual reproduction are:
            - In asexual reproduction, only single organisms is involved.
            - It is easy and rapid method of reproduction.
            - The off springs produced are genetically identical.
            - Gametes are not produced, fertilization doesn't take place.
            - All cell divisions are either amitotic or mitotic.

  3. Fission is the method of asexual reproduction in which a mother organism divides into two or more daughter organisms.
    Any two types of fission are:
            - Binary fission.
            - Multiple fission.

  4. The method of asexual reproduction which takes place by the formation of a bud is called budding.
    Any two organisms that reproduce by this method are:
            - Yeast
            - Hydra

  5. The method of asexual reproduction that takes place by means of spores is called sporulation.
    The fact that amoeba reproduce by fission means amoeba itself divides into two or more daughter amoeba for its reproduction.

  6. The method of asexual reproduction in which multicellular organisms breaks into two or more fragments and each fragments develop into new complete organism.
    Any two organisms that reproduce by regeneration are:
            - Planaria
            - Tapeworm

  7. The method of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced by cutting, sowing or grafting of the vegetative parts of a plant like root, stem or leaf is called vegetative propagation.
    The advantages of artificial vegetative propagation are:
            - Plants that do not produce viable seeds are propagated by this method.
            - It is cheaper, easier and faster method of reproduction.
            - Seedless fruits can be reproduced by this method.
            - The reproduced organisms are genetically identical.
            - The fruit trees that bears seed very late be reproduced faster.

  8. The fission in which a single parent divides into two daughters is called binary fission.
    Multiple fission is the method of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism splits into more than two daughter organisms at the same time. The nucleus of plasmodium first divides as into many nuclei and each nuclei are produced as daughter plasmodiums. In this way, plasmodium reproduce by multiple fission.

  9. Tissue culture or micropropagation is a modern technique of producing new plants from isolated plant cells or a small piece of plant tissue in a culture solution.
    The method of asexual reproduction in the given organisms are:

    a.    Yeast:
            - Budding
    b.    Rose:
            - Vegetative propagation
    b.    Hydra:
            - Budding
    d.    Spirogyra:
            - Fragmentation
    e.    Tapeworm:
            - Regeneration
    f.    Potato:
            - Vegetative propagation
    g.    Moss:
            - Sporulation
    h.    Onion:
            - Vegetative propagation
    i.    Bryophyllum:
            - Vegetative propagation
    j.    Sweet potato:
            - Vegetative propagation

  10. The significance of asexual reproduction are:
            - It produces new individuals with exactly identical qualities as the parent.
            - It is a faster, easier and cheaper method of reproduction.
            - It reproduces the daughter plants which yields faster.
            - It helps to reproduce the plants which don't produce viable seeds.

  11. It is the natural vegetative propagation arial stem.
    It is beneficial for farmers because:
            - It is cheaper, easier and faster method of reproduction.
            - Large number of plants can be propagated by this method.
            - Plants who don't produce the viable seeds can be reproduced by it.
            - Plants reproduced by this method starts yielding faster.
            - Parental genetical identities is transferred exactly same.

  12. The process in which reproduction take place by the fusion of a male and female gamete is called sexual reproduction.
    The basic features of sexual reproduction are:
            - Both male and female organisms are involved in sexual reproduction.
            - Male and female produces their respective gametes which are formed due to meiosis.
            - A male and female gamete fuse to form a diploid zygote.
            - zygote divides mitotically several times to form a multicellular organism.

  13. We know, flowering plants bears flowers that consists of androecium, gynoecium, sepes and petals. After the flower is fully developed, pollen grains get matured in the anther of flower. Due to different natural factors it is transferred from anther to stigma. As soon as it reach the ovule, it is fused with female gamete to form a zygote. The zygote develops into fruits and seeds. The developed seed germinate into new baby plant of same kind. In this way, sexual reproduction takes place in flowering plants.

  14. Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma of a flower.
    The difference between self pollination and cross pollination are:

    Self pollination
    Cross pollination
     It is the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma of same flower.
    It is the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma of different flower.
    Zygote of same identical characters are formed.
    Zygote of hybrid characters are formed.

  15. Fertilization is the process of fusion of male and female gamete to form a zygote.

  16. a.    Binary and Multiple fusion.

    Binary fusion
    Multiple fusion
    In this process, mother organism splits into two daughter organism.
    In this process, mother organism splits into more than two daughter organisms.


    b.    Sperm and Ovum.

    Sperm
    Ovum
    It is male gamete.It is female gamete.
    It is produced by male reproductive organ.It is produced by females reproductive organs.
    It is motile and smaller in size.It is non-motile and larger in size.


    c.    Ovum and Zygote.

    Ovum
    Zygote
    It is female gamete.It is formed when male and female gamete fuse.
    It is haploid cells.It is diploid cell.
    It doesn't develop into new organism.It develops into new organisms.


    d.    Sperm and Zygote.

    Sperm
    Zygote
    It is male gamete.It is formed when male and female gamete fuse.
    It is haploid cells.
    It is diploid cell.
    It doesn't develop into new organism.
    It develops into new organisms.


    e.    Fission and Budding.

    Fission
    Budding
    In this process, a mother organism splits into two or more daughter organism.In this process daughter organism develops from the bud of mother organism.
    Only unicellular organism reproduce by this process.Both multicellular and unicellular reproduces by this process.


    f.     External and Internal fertilization.

    External fertilization
    Internal fertilization
    In this process, fertilization takes place outside the body of organism.In this process, fertilization takes place inside the body of organism.
    Sex cells meet each other outside the body.Sex cells meet each other inside the body.


    g.    Asexual and Sexual reproduction.

    Asexual reproduction
    Sexual reproduction
    It takes place without the occurrence of fertilization.
    It takes place with the occurrence of fertilization.
    Only single parent is involved in this process.Both male and female are involved in this process.
    Variation of offspring cannot be observed.Variation of offspring can be observed.

  17. Layering is the artificial method of reproduction in which roots are developed on the stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant.
    The various method of layering are:
            - Simple layering.
            - Compound layering.
            - Tip layering.
            - Mound layering.
            - Air layering.

  18. Mound layering is the typical propagation technique in which the original plants are set in the ground with the stem nearby horizontal, which forces side buds to grow upward.
    For air layering, the target region of the stem is wounded, or a strip of bark is removed and then encased in a moisture retaining medium. Rooting hormone is often applied to encourage the growth of roots. The wounded portion develops into roots. Finally, the portion is separated from the parent plant to get new plant.

  19. Grafting is the type of vegetative propagation in which a plant of superior quality is obtained by combining the root of a plant and shoot of other plant.
    In whip grafting, the scion and the stock are cut slanting and then joined. The grafted point is then bound with tape or plastic and covered with soft wax to prevent dehydration and germs. The scion and stock combine within 2-3 months. Then the plastic tape can be removed.

  20. Tongue grafting is the method of vegetative propagation in which the lower portion of the scion and upper portion of stock is cut obliquely to combine them together.

  21. Tissue culture is done because:
            - To produce large number of off springs having similar features.
            - Adult plants can be produced in short time.
            - Many plantlets can be produced without seeds.

  22. For tissue culture, a few cells of a plant to be propagated are taken and kept into a culture solution under sterile conditions. In this solution a sharpless lump is produced by rapid cell divisions of the plant cell. Then the lump or callus is transferred into another culture solution containing suitable plant hormones, which stimulate the callus to develop roots. This callus with root is transferred to other culture solution for its shoot development. Finally, the baby plants are grown.
    Any three application of tissue culture are:
            - Endangered plants can be reproduced into large numbers.
            - Farmers can reproduce the plants without seed in short time.
            - Healthy and disease free plants can be produced.

  23. Name: Mother amoeba
    Method: Binary fission

    Name: Bryophyllm
    Method: Vegetative propagation by leaf.

    Name: Mother Hydra
    Method: Budding

  24. The organisms having only one kind of reproductive organ (either male or female) is called unisexual organism.
    The organisms having both kind of reproductive organ is called bisexual organism.
    For example:
    Bisexual: Earthworm
    Unisexual: Human beings

  25. An embryo is a young plant or animal in the very early stage of development before birth or before coming out of its seed or egg.
    It is produced by the mitotic cell division of a zygote in the early stage of is development.

  26. The significance of sexual reproduction are:
            - It give continuity to the race.
            - It enables genetic variation which leads to evolution.
            - It increases the ability of adaptation.

  27. We know, the sexual reproduction is such type of reproduction in which the exchange of heridity characteristics because of which entirely new kind of organism is developed. Due to that evolution and mutation occur, the newly developed off springs will be more powerful to be adapted in nature. All the plants and animals which we can see nowadays are the result of sexual reproduction. Due to the exchange of genes, there is more probability of genetic variation. In this way, sexual reproduction has great significance for the evolution of organisms.

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