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  1. The group of organs though which blood circulates though out the body is called the blood  circulatory system.
    The main components of the system are:
            - Blood vessels.
            - Blood.
            - Heart.

  2. Blood is a red-colored viscous and complex tissue fluid made up of plasma (55%) and blood corpuscles.
    Any 3 properties of blood are:
            - It is red, viscous, and complex fluid connective tissue.
            - Its salty in taste and slightly alkaline in nature.
            -The specific gravity of blood is 1.05 to 1.06.
    Its functions are:
            - Transport respiratory gas.
            - Transport of nutrients.
            - Transport of waste products.
            - Transport of body secretions.
            - Regulation of body temperature.
            - Water balance.

  3. The transparent clear yellowish liquid that forms 55% of blood volume and contains about 90% of water, 8% proteins and 2% other dissolved substances called plasma.
    The functions are:
            - It transport digested food to different parts of the body.
            - It transport waste materials.
            - It regulates the body temperature.
            - It transports hormone secreted by endocrine glands.
            - Fibrinogen present in plasma helps in blood clotting.

  4. Erythrocytes are red colored, biconcave and enucleated disk like structures present in the plasma (RBCs).
    Its functions are:
            - It transport oxygen from lungs to other tissues and CO2 from other tissues to lungs.
            - It maintain the viscosity of blood and ion-balance.
    The larger and irregular cells having a nucleus is called leucocytes (WBCs). They are capable of amoeboid movement.
    Its functions are:
            - It helps in destroying solid substances.
            - It fights against germ and destroy the damaged cell.
            - It helps in the formation of antibodies which neutralize or kill the germs.

  5. Platelets are colorless, round, non-nucleated, cytoplasmic fragmented formed from giant cells of the bone marrow.
    Its functions are:
            - It plays an important role in the coagulation or clotting of blood.
            - It release a chemical called thromboplastin.

  6. Valves are the switch found in heart and different blood vessels that regulate the flow of blood within the heart and its passage.
    The valves found in human body are:
            - Tricuspid valve
            - Mitral valve
            - Aortic valve
            - Pulmonary valve

  7. Blood vessels are the muscular tubes or pipes through which blood flows in the different parts of the body.
    Its importance are:
            - It forms the system or channel for the blood circulation.
            - It supplies nutrients, oxygen and other necessary substance to different parts of the body.
            - It helps to supply back the different waste bodies from the diff. parts of body to specific organs.

  8. The circulation of blood from the left ventricle to the right ventricle of the heart via body tissues is called systemic circulation.
    The circulation in which blood travels twice through the heart in one complete cycle in the body is called double circulation.

  9. The circulation of blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the left auricle via lungs is called pulmonary circulation.

  10. a.    RBC and WBC.

    RBC
    WBC
    They don't have nucleus.They do have nucleus.
    They have 7 μ (nanometer) in diameter.They are 8 to 15 μ (nanometer)in diameter.
    Their number range from 5 - 5.5 million/mm3 (male) and 4.5 - 5 million/mm3 (female).Their number ranges from 4000 to 11000/mm3.


    b.    WBC and Platelets.

    WBC
    Platelets
    They are formed from stem cell of bone marrow.They are formed from giant cells of bone marrow.
    Their number is 4000 - 15000/ mm3.Their number varies from 2.5 lakhs to 4.5 lakhs/mm3.
    They live for few hours or few days.They live for 5 - 10 days and are destroyed in spleen.


    c.    Anaemia and Leukaemia.

    Anaemia
    Leukaemia
    It is the condition when the count of RBCs is extreme less.It is the condition when the count of WBCs is extreme high.
    Body cannot release energy due to deficiency of oxygen.Body cannot resist disease due to lack of anti - bodies.


    d.    Leukaemia and Leucopenia.

    Leukaemia
    Leucopenia
    It is the condition when the count of WBCs is extreme high.
    It is the condition when the count of WBCs is extreme less.
    It is also called blood cancer.It is caused due to the fall in the neutrophil cells. 


    e.
        Auricle and Ventricle.

    Auricle
    Ventricle
    They are the upper two chambers of heart.They are the lower two chambers of heart.
    They accept the blood to the heart.They pump blood from the heart.
    Their wall are thinner.Their wall are thicker.


    f.     Pulmonary artery and Pulmonary vein.

    Pulmonary artery
    Pulmonary vein
    They supply deoxygenated blood to lungs.They supply oxygenated blood from the lungs.
    They don't have valve within them.They do have valve within them.


    g.    Artery and Vein.

    Artery
    Vein
    They carry oxygenated blood expect PA.They carry deoxygenated blood expected PV.
    They have thicker wall.They have thinner wall.
    They don't have valve.They do have valve.
    They are located away from skin (deeper).They are located close to skin.

  11. Blood pressure is the force with which bloods pushes against the walls of the arteries.
    The normal blood pressure of a healthy young adult is 120/80 mmHg.

  12. The pressure of the blood inside the arteries is highest which is called systole.
    The pressure of the blood inside the arteries is comparatively less, which is called diastole.

  13. We all know, WBCs protect the body from the attack of diseases causing germs and other harmful foreign materials. As a result, WBCs are called soldiers of the body.

  14. We all know, the blood flow with low pressure in veins but flows with high pressure in arteries. So, to prevent the backward flow of blood in veins, valves are present. But no valves are required in arteries. So that, valves are present in veins but not in arteries.

  15. We all know ventricle pumps out the large amount of blood to different parts of the body and lungs. So, it requires greater force for this action which is provided by thick wall. But auricle receives blood from lungs and different parts of body for which no great force is required. So, wall of ventricle is thicker than that of auricles.

  16. We all know, left ventricle pumps large amount of blood to various parts of body through aorta. For this, it requires greater force which provided by its thick wall. But right ventricle supplies blood only towards lungs. For which, leas force is required. So, the wall of left ventricle is more muscular than that of right one.

  17. Arterial pulse is the systemic contraction of the heart that can be felt as a jerk in certain arteries which are superficial in position.

  18. The continuous rhythmic beat throughout life which is produced due to the contraction and relaxation of heart muscles is called heart beat.

  19. The factors affecting rate of heart beat are:
            - Fear
            - Physical exercises.
            - Fever.
            - Tension.
            - Emotion.

  20. The group of organs which work together for the circulation of blood throughout the body is called blood circulatory system. In the human body, a rapid supply of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, etc. to various tissues and deposal of waste products is an essential requirement. As circulatory system in human body is responsible for transporting various materials inside the body with the help of blood. Therefore, this is the imp. of blood circulation in human body.

  21. Any five causes of high blood pressure are:
            - Smoking and alcoholism.
            - Lack of physical exercise.
            - Genetic causes.
            - Consumption of spicy and salty foods.
            - Hypertension.

  22. Any four preventive measures of high blood pressure are:
            - Avoid the consumption of cold drinks.
            - Smoking & alcoholism should be avoided.
            - Regular physical exercise should be done.
            - Avoid the consumption of fatty, oily and spicy food.

  23. Diabetes is a disease which is caused due to increase in the sugar level in blood
    Its symptoms are:
            - Frequent urination.
            - Excessive thrust & hunger.
            - Tiredness.
            - Delay in wound healing.
            - Blurred vision.
    Its preventive measures are:
            - Obesity should be reduced.
            - Balanced diet should be taken.
            - Hypertension should be reduced.
            - Regular physical exercise.
            - Avoid smoking and alcoholism.

  24. Uric acid is a compound of carbon and nitrogen with the formulae C5H4N4O3.
    Its causes are:
            - Consumption of spicy & salty foods.
            - Consumption of fatty red meat, sea food, pulses, etc.
    Its effects are:
            - It can lead to gout diabetes, kidney stone, etc.
            - It causes swelling of the skin and joints of the legs with burning sensation.

  25. Any four method of reducing uric acid are:
            - Drink water several times a day.
            - Consume baking soda.
            - Eat 10-40 cherries a day.
            - Avoid consumption of fatty red meat, sea food, etc.

  26. - WBCs:
            - It forms antibodies.
            - It defend body from various diseases.

    - Plasma:
            - It transport digestive food.
            - It regulates body temperature.

    - RBCs:
            - They transport oxygen and CO2.
            - They maintain viscosity of blood and ion-balance.

    - Platelets:
            - It helps in clotting of blood.
            - It release chemical called thromboplastin.

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