Rabin Kalikote • 171 Reads
Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.)To study wave motion and properties of waves, let's revise a few essential terms and results related to simple harmonic motion.Periodic motion is the motion that repeats itself at equal intervals of time. Examples are:the motion of simple pendulums and compound pendulumsthe motion of electrons i...
Rabin Kalikote • 99 Reads
Wave MotionA wave is the transfer of energy and momentum, in form of disturbance, from one part of a medium to another without the actual transfer of particles of the medium from one point to another.For example, water waves spread along the surface from one point to another, every object floating on the water will be disturb...
Rabin Kalikote • 97 Reads
Progressive WaveIf the wave profile moves along the forward direction with the speed of the wave, it is called a progressive wave. Both transverse and longitudinal waves are progressive waves. The amplitude and frequency of vibration of particles in a progressive wave are the same but the phase of the vibration changes point ...
Rabin Kalikote • 133 Reads
Principle of Superposition of WavesAt any point of the medium, the combined effect is given by the principle of superposition.This principle states that if at any point two waves of the same kind reach simultaneously, the resultant displacement at that point is the sum of the displacements due to the individual waves.If y1, y...
Prakriti Sapkota • 548 Reads
Stationary WaveWhen two waves of the same frequency, velocity, wavelength, and amplitude but traveling in the opposite direction will superimpose, it gives rise to a new wave which is called a stationary wave. It is also called a standing wave.This wave doesn't carry any energy. It has nodes and antinodes. Node is the positio...
Rabin Kalikote • 127 Reads
Wave PropertiesAll waves are reflected, refracted, diffracted and show the phenomenon of interference like light waves.Reflection of Sound: Like light waves, sound waves are reflected from a plane surface obeying the law of reflection, i.e. making an angle of incidence equal to the angle of reflection.That is, ∠i = ∠r In our ...
Because, radio waves in the shortwave band can be reflected or refracted from the ionosphere. Therefore, short waves directed at an angle into the sky can be reflected back to Earth at great distances, beyond the horizon.
Due to the refraction of sound, we can hear sounds easily at night than during clear days.
On a clear day, the lower layer of the atmosphere is hotter than the layers above. Since sound travels faster in a hotter medium, its speed is greater near the surface. As a result, the waves are bent away from the surface. Thus, the intensity of the sound waves diminishes and does not seem to travel a long distance. On a clear night, the lower layer of the atmosphere is colder than the air above. Now, the sound waves travel faster at the higher layers than at the lower layers. Thus, the waves are bent towards the earth's surface. The intensity of the sound increases and seems to travel a greater distance.
The differences between transverse and longitudinal waves are as listed below:
|Transverse waves||Longitudinal waves|
|The particles of the medium vibrate in the direction perpendicular to|
the direction of wave propagation.
|The particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of wave propagation.|
|Alternate crests and trough are formed.||Alternate compression and rarefaction of the medium are formed.|
|These are formed in solids and over liquid surfaces.||These are formed in solids, liquids and gases.|
|These waves produce the variations in the density of medium.||These waves do not produce variations in the density of the medium.|
|Transverse waves can be polarized.||Longitudinal waves cannot be polarized.|
The differences between progressive waves and stationary waves are as listed below:
|Progressive waves||Stationary waves|
|The disturbance travels forward.|
The disturbances are confined to a particular region.
|The amplitude of vibration of each particle is same.||The amplitude is zero at nodes and goes on increasing to become maximum at antinodes.|
|Energy is transferred forward along the waves.||No transfer of energy is in the medium.|
|No particles in the medium are at rest.|
Particles at the nodes are permanently at rest.
The Planck constant, or Planck's constant, is a fundamental physical constant which is denoted by h. When a photon's frequency is multiplied by the Planck constant, it gives the energy contained in the photon. Due to mass–energy equivalence, the Planck constant also relates mass to frequency.
E is energy of photon
h is Planck's constant
f is frequency of the photon